Kathy’s research aims to understand the drivers of ocean warming and freshening in the Southern Ocean. In this remote region, certain areas are experiencing accelerated trends, but it remains difficult to collect enough data to observe the ocean’s true variability. To further understand what is driving those changes and what we can expect in the future, Kathy uses a combination of physical observations (e.g., temperature and salinity shipboard measurements), acoustic observations (e.g., seismic reflection surveys), and model output.